5000 years of Khakassia’s history is a constant movement of tribes and wars of peoples, the development of new technologies, the rise and fall of states, the change of cultures and ideologies. The Stone Age are replaced by the Bronze Age, and later by the Iron Age and the Middle Ages, there is an improvement in material and spiritual culture. Natural landscapes and climate, along with events in Asia that always reached Siberia, largely determined the course of the history of Khakassia. This magnificent land stays eternal and its every square meter keeps its secrets.
The first state in Southern Siberia emerged back in the 7th-3rd centuries BC. “Dinling-go” – this is how it is written in the ancient Chinese annals. Dinlings (who were also the representatives of the Tagar archaeological culture) belonged to a huge conglomerate of tribes known as the Scythians. In the 2nd century BC, the descendants of the Dinlings mixed with the Mongol-speaking descendants of the Hunnu. At about the same time, the Turkic-speaking tribes of the Kyrgyz came to this territory. They maintained their independence from the Turkic and Uighur Khaganates and by the 9th century AD became the military aristocratic elite of the medieval state called the Kyrgyz Kaganate, which controlled the entire territory of southern Siberia.
This state existed until the invasion of Genghis Khan’s troops in the XII century. During 13th-16th centuries Khakassia was a part of various political Mongol-Dzungarian formations. Some scholars (for example, V.Y. Butanaev) think that there was the domination of the medieval political union called Khongoray.
The process of accession of Siberia to the Russian Empire started in the 7th century. In 1628 the Krasnoyarsk stockaded town was founded. In 1707 Khakassia became a part of Russia. In 1727, the Treaty of Kyahta was signed between Russia and China, and since the 1750s the construction of the villages is underway, where the Cossack garrisons were located for the protection and development of new territories.
In the 17th-18th centuries, there is an active development of natural resources (gold, iron, salt, furs) and metallurgy. Since the 1820s, local self-government is formed – the Sagai and Kachinsk steppe dumas. At the same time peasants from the central provinces of the Russian Empire settle the territory of Southern Siberia. Since the 1820s, local self-government has been formed – the Sagai and Kachinsky steppe dumas while peasant from the central provinces of the Russian Empire settle territory of Southern Siberia.